ADHD affects many areas of a child’s life beyond behaviour. For a variety of reasons, children with ADHD often struggle in school.
Treating behaviour problems is not enough. To ensure healthy development and success in school, children need support that addresses these issues.
To be effective, interventions need to be:
- comprehensive: it is important to address challenges at home, at school, and anywhere else the child spends time
- consistent: interventions should be similar at home and at school
- long-term: change does not happen overnight, and in most cases the child will need consistent support for several years
ADHD and Learning Problems
Research suggests that learning problems are a key feature of ADHD. Children with ADHD may start having learning problems in kindergarten.
Students with ADHD are at risk for:
repeating a grade
placement in special education
dropping out of high school
Why children with ADHD have learning problems
Children with ADHD often have three related difficulties:
- Attention problems are related to weaknesses in both working memory and academic achievement. Working memory is a “mental workspace” where information is stored for a few seconds, just long enough to manipulate the information to reach a goal.
- In turn, these two variables relate to each other. For instance, studies show that children with working memory problems do worse on tests. This is true whether or not they have ADHD.
- Children with ADHD may also have other problems that affect learning.
- problems with executive function, which is the ability to identify a problem, plan a solution, carry out the plan, and evaluate how well the plan worked
- problems with processing speed
Children with ADHD often have difficulty with study skills and engagement with what they are learning. They may also have specific weaknesses in:
- language and communication
Helping children with ADHD and learning problems
It is not enough to address the core ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. To help children with ADHD succeed at school, parents and teachers need to address their cognitive and academic weaknesses as well.
- taking a comprehensive, long-term approach
- working as a team, with clear communication between home, school, and other professionals
- identifying the child’s learning needs, strengths, and behavioural difficulties early
- using supports and teaching methods that will help the child learn and stay interested at school
Strategies that can improve children’s academic skills include:
- peer-assisted learning
- instructional supports
- study strategies
- organizational techniques